Association of hotondo with a complex NP universal

Yukio Furukawa


Due to the universal interpretation of a sentence with a complex NP universal in Japanese, it is widely assumed that a universal quantifier exists somewhere within the complex NP. This paper addresses the following question: is this assumption always true? I use hotondo modification as a diagnostic. Hotondo has several meanings, but each possible interpretation is tightly connected with its distribution. By examining the available association patterns with complex NP universals, I show that in one case, the complex NP must contain a universal quantifier, while in another case, it cannot contain a universal quantifier.


Complex; NP; Universal; Hotondo

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